The church situated in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem is also known as the Church of the Resurrection and the Church of the Anastasis. The church houses the last four holy sites where Christ was crucified at the Calvary or Golgotha; the sites are known as the Stations of the Cross and situated along the Via Dolorosa. The church was rediscovered in the 4th century by the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine, St. Helena. She found Christ’s tomb and the True Cross. Two churches were constructed at the site; one was above the tomb while the other was built around the hill of Golgotha. In the 11th century and the early 1800s, major work was undertaken to rebuild the site. The cavernous structure contains elements of the medieval, Byzantine, and Crusader forms of architecture. Visitors can see the many shrines, altars, and outstanding pieces of artwork. One can visit the tombs dating back to the first century, the Prison of Christ, the Chapel of the Finding of the Cross, the Rock of Calvary, the Stone of the Unction, and the Chapel of Agony of the Virgin where Christ’s body was taken down from the Cross.
This site situated near the Damascus Gate outside the walled city of Jerusalem holds the utmost significance as it is widely believed to be the place for Christ’s burial and Resurrection. Although speculation is rife about the precise date of the tomb’s discovery, popular view suggests that it was found in 1867. The place was identified as the site of Christ’s burial as it contained a burial site dating back to the first century. There is a craggy escarpment nearby resembling a skull; it is believed that Christ was crucified here. It is popularly known as the Hill of the Skull or Golgotha.
This church, also known as the Basilica of Agony, faces the walls of the Old City and stands atop the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. It is the site where Christ prayed the night before his Crucifixion. The church stands on the remnants of a basilica built in the 4th century and a Crusader chapel constructed in the 12th century. Twelve different nations contributed to the construction of the neo-classical church; hence it earned the name of the Church of All Nations. The astounding mosaic façade supported by Corinthian columns above the main entrance depicts Christ as a conduit between the Lord and mankind. The walls of the church are adorned with mosaics depicting Biblical scenes that had taken place at the Garden of Gethsemane. Beneath the altar is the Rock of Agony where Christ sat down and prayed; it is encircled by a crown of thorns made of wrought iron.
The Dormition Abbey is located on Mount Zion outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem near the Zion Gate. In 1898, a piece of land was given to the German Kaiser Wilhelm II to commemorate his visit to Jerusalem by the Ottoman ruler. The German-Catholic Church is a magnificent neo-Romanesque structure that incorporates the architectural style of the ancient cathedrals of Europe; the red and white bricks are reminiscent of the Mameluke architecture. The abbey was dedicated in 1910. The site holds significance as it is the place where the Blessed Virgin Mary fell into an eternal slumber. Hence the term Dormition denoting sleep is associated with the place. The mosaics express the link between the world and divinity, the four evangelists and the Biblical prophets.
This Franciscan church is a distinctive building with its elegant brick façade and lofty bell tower in Old Jaffa. The 13th-century citadel bears elements of the New Spanish baroque architecture and its interiors depict various episodes of St. Peter’s life, including the transfiguration of Christ on Mount Tabor and the washing of his feet at the Last Supper. Although a majority of the churches face East, the St. Peter’s Church faces towards the sea in the West as it is where the saint had seen his first vision to spread the word of the Lord and evangelize the Gentiles. The carved pulpit resembles the shape of a tree.